How "Superstring Theory" relates matter-energy and space-time to intelligence consciousness as outlined in the book entitled "Integrated Theory of Intelligence" which is one approach to a "Theory of Everything".
There is no such thing as a pure vacuum in space. Even the most tiny volume of space imaginable contains at least a thin continuous film of energy although in near vacuum situations it will be extremely rarified. The same concept also applies to intelligence-consciousness, which occupies all of space although in some locations may be extremely rarified. This is the leftover effect from the big bang when at the very beginning there was one basic substance and one unified force that has evolved into our current universe which is still comprised of one basic fabric manifested as matter-energy-intelligence-consciousness in space-time with several specified forces.
Matter (atomic particles) is stabilized foci of energy, which is concentrated into very small volumes of space but without form. Atomic particles such as electrons can spontaneously form within space and then dissolve back into space being annihilated by anti electrons (positrons). Protons are extraordinarily stable but would have formed in much the same way as electrons. Energy is not separate from space which means matter isn't either, as atomic particles can precipitate out of space much like a cloud can spontaneously form out of pure blue sky. Once formed it may last billions of years like a proton or disappear within microseconds like a muon. The water vapor within the atmosphere concentrates together to form a cloud and then dissipates back into the atmosphere. The cloud like the electron has no form or defined boundary. The electron like the cloud has no outer shell. It is continuous with space and is indivisible from space. It again should be emphasized that there is one basic fabric that makes up the universe, which is continuous and manifests the seemingly separate properties of matter-energy-intel1igence-consciousness-space-time.
Depending upon which interrelated properties of the basic fabric that one attempts to define the distinctions are only arbitrary and illusionary. We see matter as separate from energy and space as well as from intelligence-consciousness because our measuring devices are designed that way. We have an analog universe that we have artificially attempted to divide into discrete packets for observation and analysis. Since the universe is one complete total undivided entity all attempts to quantize it will only allow for approximations. Quantum field theory has achieved a predictable accuracy for atomic events to better than eleven significant figures. General relativity has a tested accuracy, which is even better. It has been proven to be correct to one part in 1014. Other mathematical formulations in the future may achieve an accuracy that is even greater than this, however they will still remain only approximations. Infinitely accurate physical descriptions of the universe will always remain impossible. One would also reach this conclusion based upon the science of chaos. This also leads to the prediction made by this theory that no two points in space can be exactly alike. No two points in space have the same future or the same past. The difference between two very similar points may not be measurable because they are so nearly identical but it is still the conclusion that there are no two points in space, no matter how small the volume being examined, that are exactly alike. Any point in space is also in a state of continual flux where its properties are undergoing change from one moment to the next.
There likely is an infinite space, which stretches well beyond the limits of the space associated with our own universe. Its properties may be different in some ways. There may be multiple universes which surround our own in various stages of contraction and expansion. If so it would seem probable that they would share a common physics.
The composition of space within our own universe or any other changes over time. It goes through an evolutionary process allowed for by the expansion of space resulting in the continuously decreasing energy density. As the latter occurs this results in decreasing chaos and increasing order. There will be a continuation of the creation of higher order systems over time as space continues to expand.
Intelligence-consciousness is also a previously unrecognized property of space and is present in varying concentrations throughout all of the universe. In some regions it is densely concentrated and in others is quite rarified. Our own earth would appear to be a focus in space that has a heavy concentration of intelligence-consciousness. There is currently less known about its distribution throughout space than matter-energy. This will remain a challenge to science for an extended period of time. Those scientists who have the belief that virtually all that there is to know about our reality has already been defined in physical terms delude themselves.
Space as it exists in our universe began as a near infinitely small volume as relates to its eventual ultimate size which will not be achieved for at least billions of years into the future. It is one of six identified properties of a universal basic substance. The consistency of space has been and will continue to change from moment to moment. The space of the early universe was very much different in its consistency than what we observe today. The basic ingredients were the same but the way in which they manifested themselves would have been considerably different because of their relatively higher concentrations per unit volume. The physics that describes our current universe would probably apply to the past or future universe as it continuously evolves but it can't be certain that the numerical values of the universal mathematical constants would necessarily remain unchanged.
One interesting prediction that this theory would suggest, as space continues to expand, is that the rate of the aging process will gradually slow which would also apply to the rate that entropy occurs within any system. Space as we are coming to understand is a very dynamic and interesting property of the universal basic fabric and at the most elementary level is continuous and undivided from matter-energy and intelligence-consciousness.
Time is one of the six properties of the basic fabric of the universe. For time to exist requires the presence of consciousness or awareness. Without consciousness this dimension of physical reality would be reduced to a measure of distance or the measure of any change of a system. Time began with the big bang and has moved forward continuously ever since and will continue to do so hereafter. Time for us could theoretically end if our universe is closed which would someday result in a big crunch with the universe collapsing back upon itself.
Time prior to relativity theory was regarded as absolute however it is now known that this is incorrect. Time appears constant and unchanging within any isolated frame of reference system but is relative and could be measured differently by an observer outside this isolated frame of reference system looking inward. It has now been well documented that even though an individual within an isolated system moving forward at a very rapid velocity will not detect any time difference, an outside observer looking inward will detect a slowing of time that becomes quite dramatic as the speed of light is approached. General relativity also predicts that time will run slower in a gravitational field.
According to the special theory of relativity, there can be no absolute standard of time. All time measurements are made relative to the state of the motion of the observer. This is different from predictions based upon the general theory of relativity. The latter allows for many, if not an infinite number of possible absolute time choices.
It has also been suggested that the need for a beginning of time originating with breaking of symmetry from a singularity can be avoided. The universe could have an infinite past if there are fundamental measures of things happening in the universe that slow down the farther one travels back into the past. If this was true then time could also be viewed as accelerating forward relatively speaking rather than remaining constant. The effect would be the same. Someone inside the frame of reference (universe) would see time as a constant without accelerated change. However an observer outside the universe looking in would see a continual slowing of time the farther back into the past one looked probably following an exponential curve. To anyone inside the universe time would appear constant.
If on the other hand the farthest out receding galaxies, which seemingly are moving away from us at a faster rate, would have a slowing of time relative to that which we currently would measure from our own system. We could see the time changes in the other galaxy, however someone inside the distant galaxy would not perceive a change.
Space-time curvature is effected when a body moves, or a force acts upon it and in turn the structure of space-time affects the way that bodies move and forces act. Because of the interrelationship of all events, space and time not only affect but are also effected by everything that happens within the universe.
The concept of "imaginary" time has also been introduced as a necessary function in an attempt to unify gravity with quantum mechanics. It is indistinguishable from directions in space and there is no significant difference between the forward and backward directions of imaginary time. This differs from the concept of "real" time, which always moves forward toward the future. The second law of thermodynamics requires forward movement only, leading to the concept of "arrow of time".
There are actually at least three arrows of time that compel its forward motion. In addition to the thermodynamic arrow, which is based upon a state of continued heat entropy with a propensity for increasing disorder, there is the psychological arrow, which is based upon our ability to remember past events but not the future, and the cosmological arrow which forces time forward because the universe is in a state of expansion not contraction.
Inside an isolated system the perception of time can also vary within anyone individual. A person who has been administered a mind altering drug may experience time at a different rate than during an ordinary consciousness state. It very much is a mental construct requiring a state of awareness. This would indicate the conscious perception of time can be very much different than the actual constant progression of time as it relates to purely physical events. There are two types of time which flow in a forward direction. Physical or proper time is involved in all physical event processes as relates to all matter-energy transactions and is what the physicist works with. Subjective time requires the presence of consciousness and can be perceived very much differently than actual physical time depending upon the consciousness state.
The experience of time by a conscious being is very much determined by matter-energy interactions occurring within the brain. The many neurotransmitters, which are present within the brain and body, can be altered in quantity, or the amount released within any synaptic junction can be altered and this in turn will alter the way time is subjectively perceived. One can perceive time change as faster or slower when in an altered consciousness state. During a near death experience one can re-experience their entire life in a review within a very short time interval with time perception being greatly accelerated. After taking a mind-altering substance, time perception can also be altered so that one hour may seem like two or more hours. The electrochemical changes which are occurring within the brain that alter time perception are very much based upon energy-matter events. Since matter-energy, consciousness-intelligence, space-time are all interrelated as properties of one universal basic substance, these findings described should be anticipated. Any change in the status of one of these basic properties will act as a cause to produce an effect in the others. Likewise any effect produced by any change in any of these six properties will in turn become a cause producing effects within all of the other properties. It is a universal interrelated feedback situation where all events occurring at any one moment in time accumulatively affect all future events either directly or indirectly. This is one very good reason why the theory would also predict that no two points in space-time can be exactly alike even though our current understanding of quantum mechanics might suggest otherwise. The amount of information required to define each point in space-time would be essentially infinite since each point is being influenced either directly or indirectly by events occurring within every other point throughout all of space-time.
Time is an inseparable part of the basic fabric of the universe and cannot be separated from it. The apparent distinction is artificial, an invention of a reductionist mind. It nevertheless has become invaluable to recognize its distinct properties. By doing so it has allowed science in particular to examine the basis for our existence. It has allowed humankind to develop highly accurate approximations pertaining to physical reality. The level of precision achieved in the particular case of quantum mechanics as previously indicated has reached an accuracy of at least eleven significant figures. It is anticipated that over time science will probably achieve states of even greater precision. Nevertheless the theory predicts that absolute accuracy is not possible because of total interrelatedness of all events on a universal wide basis. The same science of chaos which exists, making it impossible to totally know initial conditions of any process, applies to any mathematical relationships which we have come to recognize. There are many formulae which accurately describe physical processes to the extent that our measuring devices allow precise detection. Just as Newtonian mechanics can only approximate events that occur at extraordinarily high velocities, approaching the speed of light, the same limitations apply to relativistic formulations because of the subtle influences not recognized at the subatomic levels because all events occurring within the universe are interrelated. Every cause produces an effect and every effect in turn becomes a cause.
Ever since the theories of special and general relativity, as well as quantum mechanics have been in existence, there has been a concerted effort by physicists to find a way to merge these theories into one grand unified structure, which gives explanation for all physical events that occur within our universe. Until relatively recently, these theories (relativity and quantum mechanics) have seemed to be mutually incompatible. There is now increasing evidence to support the conclusion that a grand unified theory is in the process of being formulated within the framework of superstring theory. The latter provides a single explanation capable of describing all events occurring between all forces and all matter-energy objects. According to string theory, the atomic particles that we have described within the framework of quantum mechanics are not point-like, but rather more like tiny, one dimensional string loops, which are virtually infinitely thin, that vibrate and oscillate. The properties of any quantum particle are determined by the various ways that a string can vibrate. For example, each particle has a mass and a force charge that are determined by the strings oscillatory pattern. Quarks and electrons, and all other particles, have specific vibratory patterns that establish their uniqueness. The various force particles, like gluons and bosons, have their own specific vibratory patterns, as well. Since all particles of matter and all forces that interact between them can be reduced to vibratory strings with specific patterns, this therefore allows for a unification of all physical processes under one theory which potentially can explain all of our material existence. It has not yet been conclusively established that string theory will actually accomplish unification of all matter-energy with the four forces since the exact mathematical equations have not yet been completely formulated. As of now, the underlying mathematics are only approximations. Even so, the theory seems to hold significant promise that eventually it will accomplish what current string theorists envision. This optimism is based upon several breakthroughs that have answered certain unimaginably difficult theoretical questions which previously defied understanding.
Violent fluctuations in the special fabric at the ultramicroscopic levels (distances less than 10-33 cm) have precluded all attempts to incorporate gravity into the framework of quantum mechanics until the formulation of superstring theory. This has allowed the alteration of general relativity in just the right way to make it fully compatible with quantum mechanics. Even though the hypothetical graviton, which is the messenger particle of the gravitational force, has never been directly observed, its properties have been predicted. Other particles have also been theorized before they were actually observed, such as the neutrino which was then eventually found to exist. Superstring theory has recognized a vibratory pattern that perfectly matches the predicted characteristics of a graviton.
A particle's energy is determined by the string's particular vibrational pattern. The greater the string's amplitude of vibration and the shorter it's wave length, the greater it's energy. Energy level is also determined by string tension with higher tension reflecting higher energy. The energy is also determined by the type of vibrational motion both sliding (uniform) and oscillatory (ordinary). The radius of the string loop also helps determine energy level. The smaller the radius, the greater the energy.
The mass of an elementary particle is determined by the energy of the vibrational pattern with heavier particles having internal strings that vibrate more energetically, while lighter particles have internal strings that vibrate less energetically. There is also a direct association between the pattern of string vibration and a particle's response to a gravitational force. A particle's charge is also determined by the precise way that the string vibrates. Messenger particles, which are involved in the transmission of the four physical forces, also have their own resonant patterns of string vibration.
Superstring theory establishes a framework for explaining all of the properties of the atomic and subatomic particles observed in nature. It also indicates that the basic fabric of all matter-energy and all forces is the same promising a single, all-inclusive, unified description of the physical universe. There is still no way to expose the sub-Planck-scale imperfections in the fabric of space. As previously stated, this is because matter-energy is not separate from space, but gradually dissolves into the fabric of space, being continuous with it. The physicist would also add that our measuring instruments are incapable of seeing objects smaller in size than the particles perceived to be present in the quantum mechanical realm.
There have been five main string theories which, until recently, were thought to be completely separate from each other and were also competitive. A relatively recent breakthrough described by Witten has allowed the five competing theories to be united into a single framework which has been provisionally named M-:theory. This latest theory requires eleven dimensions and contains not only strings, but other objects, as well, such as two dimensional membranes and undulating three dimensional "blobs".
Whether or not superstring theory or some other yet to be imagined physical description eventually proves successful in best representing our microscopic and macroscopic universe, it will most likely remain an approximation with inherent limitations. The approximation might be mathematically precise to an astonishing level of accuracy, however, will represent a construct of the mind limited by whatever measuring devices we will eventually invent. It has become obvious that our description of quantum objects and events is limited and somewhat misrepresentative of reality. Superstring theory may allow us to advance to a new level of precision and merge current existing theories into one all-inclusive theory, but it should also be understood that we are still describing a map of the territory rather than the territory itself. One question I must raise about superstring theory, or any other yet to come that requires a many dimensional universe, is whether our minds are limited and, therefore, incapable of visualizing a space around us that is eleven or more dimensions, or are our theories and/or the mathematics limited in their ability to accurately describe our reality.
The math developed with quantum geometry would seem to require at least ten and probably eleven dimensions. This seems to puzzle most physicists and has led to the suggestion that the other six or seven dimensions beyond the usual four are "curled up" in space-time.
Our mathematical representations of quantum mechanics and even more so, for Superstring theory are trying to describe an analog universe in constant motion, which is also continuously expanding. Our quantum mechanical mathematical formulae would appear to be digitalizing subatomic activity in an attempt to reduce it into a quantized framework. Our classical mathematical models work well in the macroscopic world where Newtonian mechanics operate, but become increasingly imprecise as we delve deeper into the subatomic realm. Superstring theory is attempting to describe subatomic events, which occur at a much smaller level than the diameter of an atomic nucleus. As a matter of fact, the volumes of space being dealt with in Superstring theory are 1020 smaller than the diameter of an atomic nucleus. They are describing events, which occur within the range of 10-33 cm (Planck length). There are a near infinite number of energy peaks and valleys in a quantum field that are in a constant state of flux that we detect as atomic particles or strings. In concept, the strings, which form atomic particles, are extraordinarily much smaller in size than the atomic particles, as they are visualized within quantum mechanics. Again, the average string loop would have a diameter of 10-33 cm. Our measuring devices see these entities as separate objects, either as particles or waves that can be quantized into specific discrete objects. They are being measured as if they are divisible from surrounding space when in reality, they are actually continuous and indivisible from the basic background fabric. Thus quantification will always have a limited accuracy, the smaller the seemingly separate objects are that we are attempting to measure. I would also presume that the mathematics of quantum mechanics and string theory are describing events as they might occur in a steady state (non-expansionary) universe rather than an expansionary universe where every point in space has a slightly greater volume than it did at any preceding moment, no matter how short the time interval that is chosen. With this in mind, I can continue to picture a four dimensional universe with three spatial dimensions and one of time that requires a mathematical description needing multiple dimensions to accurately work; here is how. If we arbitrarily choose any point in space and mathematically describe it's location on the XYZ axis at time 0, and then trace it's movement in space over a specified period of time, it's final position would differ in an expanding volume when compared to a static non-expanding volume. This, again, presumes an intimate relationship between matter-energy in space-time.
In the above diagram let point A be the initial position of a particle that over a microsecond moves to point B. We can define both points A and B in whatever units we choose, relative the XYZ axis corresponding to our three spatial dimensions. Only three spatial dimensions are required to define each point as long as the surrounding space is not expanding. In an expanding space, the moving particle, however, would not end up at point B, but rather will be shifted slightly to point Bí as indicated in the diagram below.
The slight shifting of point B caused by the expansion of space confuses our quantum digitalized mathematics that is attempting to describe atomic events relative to points A and B (not Bí). The positions of points B and Bí drawn on the diagrams are separated an exaggerated amount for visual clarity. In reality, they would be extraordinarily close to each other and their position difference would only become noticeable in the quantum or Planck range (10-33 cm) but the position difference would confuse the mathematical description in the same way that Newtonian mechanics fails with very rapidly moving objects as they come closer to approaching the speed of light.
So how do we get nine spatial dimensions out of three and two time dimensions out of one for a total of eleven, which precisely coincides with the number of dimensions that are required for Superstring theory, to allow for the unification of field theories with quantum mechanics and relativity along with the four forces (Grand Unification Theory).
If we define the new position of Bí relative to the anticipated position of B, the new spatial dimensions are added accordingly.
The new Bí location must be defined relative to each of the initial XYZ axis intersecting points (1,2,3). It has shifted in three dimensions away from each intersecting point on each of the XYZ axes. Therefore, to define it's new position relative to the intersecting point on the Y axis requires three new XYZ distance measurements; to define it's new position relative to the X axis requires an additional three new XYZ distance measurements and to define it's new position relative to the Z axis, likewise requires an additional three new XYZ distance measurements. Thus, to define the position of Bí relative to it's expected position of B requires nine spatial dimensional measurements.
Moving from point B to Bí would also add an additional time burden because of the greater distance as a fourth dimensional time measurement so that the mathematics would require another added dimension to balance out this difference. In a non-expanding space, the time measurement would be the measured distance between point A and point B. Because space is expanding, the added time dimension would be the measured distance between point B and point Bí. In a space-time continuum, time measurement is reduced to a distance measurement. The nine spatial plus two time dimensional measurements add up to the eleven, which according to Witten, is the exact number for Superstring theory to unify relativity and quantum mechanics, as well as gravity with the other three non-gravitational forces. I believe that the "curled up" dimensions of Superstring theory are mathematically present as a manifestation of an expanding space. I am not sure that the various flatlander metaphors are necessary in helping us picture our multi-dimensional reality.
Initial string theories (five main ones) required ten dimensions (nine spatial and one time) for the mathematics to accurately approach the achievement of a grand unification theory. Recently Witten, who according to Brian Greene, is the only modern day physicist who might claim the same level of brilliance as Einstein, has indicated that one more dimension is necessary to achieve grand unification. The only problem with applying my scheme to his eleven dimensions, is that he believes that there should be ten spatial and one time, rather than nine spatial and two time. If one accepts Witten's conclusions, then a grand unification theory has been achieved. His reasoning apparently is very compelling to other string theorists, since not only does he achieve grand unification of all forces, but brings the five main, seemingly separate, string theories under one umbrella where they all are describing different parts of one reality. I don't believe my explanation of eleven dimensions really conflicts with his, since time is a distance measurement in a space-time continuum. I don't claim to understand the mathematics which makes Superstring theory so compelling, but I do understand the concepts well enough to accept the current belief by string theorists, that it really does form the basis of a grand unification theory that merges all forces (gravity included) with the others, as well as with matter-energy, along with the conclusion that they are all properties of one basic substance including space-time. It does unify quantum mechanics with relativity.