If the strong force that binds protons to neutrons in the atomic nucleus were half its present strength, the chemical elements would decay rapidly. If this same strong force were only slightly greater, then the di-proton could exist, with the result of hydrogen being catastrophically explosive. If the weak force were slightly weaker, then neutrinos would not be able to exert enough pressure on the outer envelope of a star to cause a supernova explosion. If there were no explosions, the heavier elements which are formed inside of stars and upon which life is so completely dependent could not be liberated into the universe and be available for the creation of intelligent life forms. The explosion of a supernova disperses matter rich in heavy elements around its galaxy. If there were very much difference in any of the forces of nature, then life would be rendered impossible.3...Paul Davies also states, "When we remember that these four very different types of force, each one vital for generating the complex structures that make our universe so active and interesting, all derive from a single, simple superforce, the ingenuity of it all literally boggles the mind.".4...Molecular biologist George Wald has stated, "If any one of a considerable number of physical properties of the universe...were other than it is...life...would become impossible, here or anywhere.".5
Given the necessity for all of the physical forces to be just as they are before life and intelligence could evolve, one might speculate with some assurance that these forces operate under the influence of intelligence. This would necessitate the existence of intelligence at the origin of the big bang, and this is not an impossible hypothesis. As a matter of fact, if intelligence existed at the time of the big bang, that would certainly supply answers to many questions which would otherwise go unanswered.
The forces that are more characteristic of organic processes are more difficult to define as actual forces; however, they qualify as such to the extent that they all secondarily cause the motion of matter, the expenditure of energy and the performance of work. Some of them are only apparent in higher life forms.
Organic-related forces would include:
|(1) Instinct for survival. This primitive instinct most probably exists in all living tissue and is much easier to recognize in more complex organisms. It is the single most important underlying factor which impacts virtually every decision made by any organism. A simple one-celled organism may abruptly change its direction of travel in search of a nutrient as the result of this instinct. At the other end of the spectrum, humankind also has this same basic instinct as manifested in our needs for food, shelter, love, discovery and the acquisition of knowledge; however, the presence of consciousness does occasionally allow for the overriding of it resulting in either heroic or self-destructive acts. This very strong instinct for self-preservation is the most basic underlying need or force seen throughout life forms and usually supersedes all others. It might even be viewed as the syntropic force that opposes the process of entropy.|
|(2) Drives. Humans, higher animals and perhaps even all lifeforms possess instinctual drives that are constantly directing or modifying behavior, which in turn results in the motion of matter, the expenditure of energy and the performance of work. A drive has been defined as an appetitive internal or intrapsychic force that is peremptory, cyclic, selective and displaceable.6...The most common drives include hunger, thirst, sex, fatigue and comfort-seeking or pain-avoidance.7|
|In addition to those drives which are ordinarily recognized, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, three-time Nobel prize winner, following years of research, has concluded that there must be an additional drive in living matter causing it to strive to perfect itself.8...Stated another way, physicist Lancelot L. White believes that each living organism has an inherent tendency or drive to internally organize itself into more and more sophisticated patterns. He sees this spontaneous intention or inner drive to be co-equal in importance with the force of natural selection.9...Drives are apparently the result of a tissue deficit or tissue change.10...They will be discussed in greater detail in a subsequent chapter.|
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