The term intelligence implies more than the term information. Intelligence implies the presence of consciousness, as well as manifesting an active role-directing process. It also implies a system's ability to make choices in active fashion based on its stored information content. These choices are not necessarily being made consciously and, as a matter of fact, most in all probability are being made automatically or unconsciously as indicated earlier. One of the properties of intelligence is the underlying positive force inherent within nature that is both pushing and directing the evolutionary process throughout the universe. Intelligence also differs in concept from information in that some of its properties imply the ability to think, learn, create, intuit and feel. Information implies a more sterile, inactive ingredient.
I perceive another difference between the terms information and intelligence. The amount of information stored in any system is equal to the sum of all of its parts so that if a macrostructure disintegrates, the resultant microinformation, at least according to Layzer, is equal to the sum total of macroscopic information initially present.14... Intelligence, at least part of which comprises "mind," and particularly as it applies to humans, most likely exceeds the sum of its parts as compared to purely stored information. An approximation of this concept might be made with the following formula:
Intelligence = (Information + Consciousness)*|
|Information = (Intelligence - Consciousness)|
|*||These formulas apply only to individual, isolated open systems that arise within the universe, and not to the universe itself. The overall levels of intelligence and consciousness remain constant throughout the universe as a whole. As matter-energy concentrates into increasingly more complex structures, so does intelligence. Since the overall quantity must remain constant on a universal scale, as intelligence is concentrated into specific areas it becomes rarified in others.
Into any of the derived mathematical equations that apply to information theory, (Intelligence - Consciousness) could be substituted.
The basic concept in information theory is that information can be treated very much like a physical quantity such as matter-energy. It has already been recognized by various scientists that there is more to universal existence than matter-energy and space-time. As stated by Jeremy Campbell, "To the powerful theories of chemistry and physics must be added a late arrival: a theory of information. Nature must be interpreted as matter, energy, and information." He has also stated that information is an active agent that "informs" the material world, similar to the way genes instruct the cell machinery to build an organism.15...Information is perceived to be a universal phenomenon and not just a quality of our local system.
Claude Shannon published two articles in the Bell System Technical Journal in 1948 which led to the creation of the "Theory of Information." He developed mathematical equations relating energy and information, utilizing entropy as the connecting link.16
Netscape CTRL + D
MAC Command + D