Prior to the last century, before the Michelson-Morley experiment, it was commonly believed that space contained an invisible ether. The results of this experiment tended to rule out the presence of any ether-like substance. However, there has been a recent resurgence of the ether concept as it relates to space, and at least a part of this is based on experimental work performed in 1979 by Stefan Marinov, a Bulgarian physicist. He ingeniously measured the one-way speed of light and, depending upon the direction he aimed his apparatus, obtained different speeds. This of course contradicts the century-old Michelson-Morley experiment, which purportedly demonstrated that the speed of light is constant. Their work was based on reflected light traveling over and back (two directions), which could have canceled out any intervening medium. If Marinov's experiments are supported by additional research, then the need for some type of medium in space, "ether," becomes necessary to reality.20
Paul LaViolette has developed a new theory of subquantum kinetics. This general systems theory remodels the classic concept of ether in space to represent a reactive flux. He conceives of space as being comprised of unimaginably small units that when concentrated together form matter. If it is eventually determined that there is an ether-like substance present in space, then this could modify our views about spatial expansion. For one thing, it gives rise to an alternative interpretation of the red shift phenomenon associated with distant stars and galaxies. The presence of ether might cause the red shift, rather than the recession of celestial objects.21
Of the various predictions made by the Integrated Theory of Intelligence, the one which is most central is that intelligence has evolved non-linearly and will continue to do so hereafter, at least as long as the universe is in a state of expansion. Intelligence, which includes consciousness, is space-related--that is, it occupies space. Intelligence (consciousness) can only evolve if space is expanding. Present-day theory suggests that the universe is doing just that. This conclusion is based on the Doppler effect, which is an observed phenomenon that the frequency of a wave that reaches an observer from a given source decreases with the speed at which source and observer move away from each other. Since light reaching us from other galaxies is shifted to the lower frequencies, it is seen as a red shift and suggests that stars are receding away from each other. The estimated recession velocity is correlated with the brightness of the celestial object. The fainter, more distant objects seem to be receding faster than those that are closer.22...The farther away a galaxy is from us or some other galaxy, the faster its recession velocity. At double the distance, the recession velocity also doubles. All galaxies are moving away from each other. Nearby galaxies are moving several thousand miles per second relative to each other. The farthest galaxies are moving away from each other at velocities approaching the speed of light.23... It has also been suggested by some cosmologists that light from galaxies even farther out will never reach us because they are moving away from us faster than the speed of light.24... This of course contradicts present-day theory, which suggests that no form of matter or energy can exceed the speed of light.
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