Since Charles Darwin presented his theory of evolution more than one hundred years ago, some modifications based upon more recent observations have become necessary. Darwin saw a world where, "All nature is at war, one organism with another or with external nature." He perceived a continual struggle for existence, with the strongest, the swiftest and the most cunning surviving over the weaker organisms.1... Although competition among species does exist, there would actually appear to be a great deal of cooperation going on as well. Some present-day biologists believe that there is much more cooperation between animals than competition.2...There seems to be more of a peaceful coexistence among most animals and plants, which have a very great number of symbiotic relationships.3...Nature is now seen to be an alliance founded on cooperation.
The process of evolution may not be the slow, gradual course that Darwin envisioned. There are those such as Gould and Eldredge who now propose the theory of "punctuated equilibria" which suggests that speciation occurs in jumps.4
None of the newer concepts about how evolution occurs affects the integrated theory of intelligence. It fits well with any of the concepts in existence.
This upward evolution of intelligence can best be appreciated by looking at the cosmic calendar and constructing a graph plotting the paleontologists' estimates of various arrival times of different life forms against each organism's estimated relative intelligence. Although each point can only be approximated, the resultant curve is clearly non-linear, with only the slope of the curve in question. It actually may even be exponential.
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